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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Miami County


Map of Miami County - 1878

First settlements: Paola City and township, first house built in 1856, by S. P. Boone: Stanton township, 1854, by - Lay; Marysville township, about 1855 to 1857, H. L. Lyons, Col. Coffee, Thos. W. Ayer, Jos. Beet, and Messrs. Edwards and Bradford; Sugar Creek township, about 1843, Josiah Allen; Richland township, 1854, David Anderson and others; Mound township, Nov. 11, 1854, Henderson Rice and Thomas Rice; Miami township, 1855, Col. Moore; Wea township, about 1858; Osawatomie township, 1854, Orville C. Brown, William Chestnut, and others; Osage township, 1855, James Williams; Middle Creek township, 1854, William Blair; Valley township, 1857, C. Holm. - First church buildings: Paola City and township, Baptist, no date; Stanton township, 1856, on what is known as Dry Ridge, by the United Brethren and Methodists; Marysville township, 1869, Old School Presbyterian; Sugar Creek township, Rockville, 1858, Methodist; Richland township, eastern part of the township, 1878, Baptist; Mound township, Spring Grove, 1859, Society of Friends; Wea township, Louisburg, 1874, Methodist; Osawatomie township, Osawatomie, 1858, Congregational. - First school houses: Paola City and township, 1870, district No. 21; Stanton township, Stanton, 1858; Marysville township, 1856, by the citizens of the township - used for religious purposes until 1869; Richland township, 1859, district No. 30; Mound township, 1858, by the settlers on Mound Creek; Miami township, 1860, at New Lancaster, by the public generally - it is now district No. 1; Wea township, 1860, district No. 16; Osawatomie township, 1868, district No. 14; Osage township, northern part, district No. 6; Middle Creek township, district No. 15. - First marriages: Stanton township, Mr. Marshall and Miss Kinkade, 1856; Mound township, Reuben Smith and Mary Rowcroft, November 2, 1857. - First births: Paola City and township, Sue Heiskell; Richland township, Hattie Johnson, 1858; Mound township, Francis Marion Chandler, September 14, 1856; Miami township, December, 1854, a child born to a Mrs. Gilbreth. - First business established: Paola City and township, George Mitchler Stanton township, at Old Stanton, general store, Captain Stanaford; Marysville township, general merchandise, H. L. Lyon and - Miller; Sugar creek township, Rockville, drugs, - Rockwell; Richland township, 1871, general store, - Johnson; Mound township, 1855, country store, Thomas Rice; Wea township, 1866, saw mill, Mathias Reed - grist mill added in 1868; Osawatomie township, general merchandise, Samuel Geer. - First post offices: Paola City and township, at Paola; Stanton township, Stanton, 1857, W. P. Dutton, postmaster; Marysville township, Marysville, 1856, H. L. Lyons, postmaster; Sugar Creek township, Rockville, 1859, - Rockwell, postmaster; Richland township, Rock Creek, 1871, - Johnson, postmaster; Mound township, Trenton, 1860, Henderson Rice, postmaster; Miami township, Miami Mission, 1857, William Honeywell, postmaster; Wea township, Louisburg, 1868, - Saxton, postmaster; Osawatomie township, Osawatomie, 1856, Samuel Geer, postmaster; Middle Creek township, at Upton.

The territory comprising the present county of Miami, was originally settled by Indians, the Miamis being the most numerous. They came here by virtue of the treaty with the United States, of 1840. In 1846, 800 Miamis located on Sugar Creek, in the southeast part of the county. In 1847, 300 more Miamis came out from their old home, while in the following year about 500 returned, and the Government acquiesced in their action. Besides the Miamis, the Pottawatomies, and the confederated tribes of Wea, Kaskaskia, Peoria and Piaukeshaw, were located in this county. After the organization of the Territory of Kansas, white settlers began to come in, and encroach upon the lands set apart to the Indians. The Government consequently purchased the Miami reservation, with the exception of 72,000 acres, reserved for the use of the tribe. The remnant of the tribe, such as had not become citizens, were removed to the Indian Territory in 1871. The confederated tribes above named occupied the northern part of the county. The Weas and Piaukeshaws came in 1827, the Peorias soon followed, and the Kaskaskias in 1832. Like the Miamis, after the organization of the Territory, they sold a large portion of their lands to the Government, and, by virtue of the treaty of 1868, those who had not become citizens removed to their new home on Spring river, in the Indian Territory. The Pottawatomies and Shawnees also formerly occupied portions of the county. The election of the first Legislature occurred March 30, 1855; A. M Coffee and David Lykins were elected members of the Council, and W. A. Heiskell, Allen Wilkinson, Henry Younger and Samuel Scott, all pro-slavery, were chosen representatives. The great majority of the votes were cast by citizens of Missouri. Lykins was a well-educated physician, and had entire control of the Mission School, one mile east of Paola, from the time of its establishment, in 1844, to the breaking out of the war, in 1861. He removed to Colorado in that year, and died on his arrival at Denver. A census taken prior to the election of March 30, showed a slave population of twenty-six in the representative district. The Legislature, then elected, organized Lykins (now Miami) county, naming it in honor of Dr. Lykins, the oldest white resident of the county. In the spring of 1855, a large number of immigrants settled in the county. In February of that year, John Brown, Jr., Jason Brown, Owen Brown, Frederick Brown, and Salmon Brown settled about ten miles west of Osawatomie, in the edge of Franklin county, taking claims and building a cabin. At the election, held October 1, 1855, for delegate to Congress, Paola precinct cast 220 votes for Whitfield, the pro-slavery candidate, the Free-state men taking no part. The following year was an eventful one in the history of the county, and we quote at considerable length from the historical sketch of the county prepared by E. W. Robinson, Esq.:

"Politically, this year, 1856, was the most important in the history of the Territory and county. The previous year had brought to Lykins county many immigrants, most of whom came to make permanent homes. The pending Presidential contest during most of the year had made Kansas an important factor in national politics, and the contending parties in the State did the talking, while anti-slavery Kansans and pro-slavery Kansans did the actual work. Both parties in the Territory became convinced that bullets, and not ballots, must finally settle the question as to whether Kansas should be slave or free, and each party armed for the conflict. The emigration societies of the North sent through Iowa and Nebraska more arms than agricultural implements, and the South sent her armed men to fight her battles. Kansas was made the training school for the greater conflict, which a few years after was transferred from the narrow field of a struggling Territory to the broader area of a great nation. January 15, an election was held for officers under the Topeka Constitution, Osawatomie casting 82 votes, and Stanton 31. In the previous fall, John Brown had joined his sons with a supply of arms, and in April, Major Buford, with a large body of Georgians, Alabamians and South Carolinians, came into the Territory. On the 24th of May, Winans, a Free-State man, who kept a store on Mosquito creek, brought the intelligence to the Free-State camp, near Ottawa, commonly called 'Toy' Jones', that the anti-slavery settlers on the Pottawatomie had been ordered to leave. On the reception of this news a detachment under command of John Brown, Sr., at once set out on the evening of the 24th for the relief and protection of the settlers. On arriving at the residence of Mr. Doyle, on Mosquito creek, near the Pottawatomie, the party stopped and called Doyle out, and when he appeared they fell on him with heavy cutlasses and sabers, and hacked him to death. Doyle's two sons, coming to the rescue of their father, met with a similar fate. From Doyle's the party proceeded to the house of Allen Wilkinson, who was especially obnoxious on account of his having been a member of the 'Bogus Legislature,' and on making his appearance the party murdered him. A Mr. Sherman, living on the Pottawatomie, was also murdered by the same party. The day following this massacre, companies of militia from Lykins and Linn counties, under command of Major General Coffee, proceeded to the scene of the murders, found the unburied bodies of the victims, gave them as decent interment as was possible and returned home. On the return march a number of prisoners were made of prominent Free-State men, among whom were H. H. Williams, Jacob Benjamin, William Partridge, Hugh Kilbourne. Other arrests were also made, but none of the parties arrested were charged with being participators in the Pottawatomie Massacre with the exception, perhaps, of John Brown, Jr., and in his case no evidence existed of his ever having had any connection with it. This action of the Free-State men intensified the bitterness existing between the two parties in Southern Kansas and throughout the Territory, and the only excuse made for the harsh measures adopted on the night of the 24th of May was that it was a necessity, and the only way of securing to Free-State settlers a measurable degree of peace and freedom from constant annoyance.

"On Monday, the 27th of May, a term of court for the Second Judicial District was begun in Paola. A Grand Jury was empaneled, and an indictment was found against O. C. Brown, John Brown, Sr., John Brown, Jr., O. V. Dayton, Alexander Gardner, Richard Mendenhall, Chas. A. Foster. Chas. H. Crane, William Partridge and William Chestnut, in which it was charged that they 'did unlawfully and wickedly conspire, combine, confederate and agree together to resist the enforcement of the laws passed by the Legislature for the collection of taxes.' This action of the Grand Jury refers to the action taken at the meeting held in Osawatomie April 16, 1856, at which John Brown made a speech, and resolutions were adopted against the payment of taxes. The prisoners taken by the militia were brought to Paola during this term of court, and all but eight were discharged. Among these eight were H. H. Williams, John Brown, Jr., Jason Brown, William Partridge and Hugh Kilbourne. These eight prisoners were taken to Osawatomie and turned over to the custody of a company of United States dragoons, who subjected them to severe treatment. The charge made against them was that they were guilty of high treason, but after being in confinement and alternately in the hands of United States troops and the Marshal's posse until November, they were discharged by Judge Lecompte at Lecompton. Major Williams' 'high treason' consisted in being a member of the Free-State Legislature, and Captain of the Pottawatomie Rifle Company. June 6, Buford, with about seventy men, sacked Osawatomie, robbing the Geer Hotel and the private residences of the village. About thirty boarders were at the hotel, and the marauders broke open trunks and valises, rifled them, and carried away clothing, jewelry and all portable valuables. In this way they secured about $3,000 worth of property. During the early part of the summer a company of United States dragoons camped at Osawatomie, and in August Budford's forces were camped on what is now known as the Ballard farm, near Osawatomie, where they erected a fort, and resolved themselves into an 'army of occupation.' On the 5th of August the

Free-State men attacked Buford, drove him from his fortified camp, took the fort, and with it the teams and commissary stores of the pro-slavery forces. On the 29th of August, General John W. Reid, with forces from Platte and Clay counties, Missouri, left the headwaters of Bull creek, under guidance of Rev. Martin White, for an attack on Osawatomie.

"White, after leaving this county, preached a pro-slavery crusade in Platte and Clay counties, and, on his representation of the injuries he received, and of the trials and tribulations he had undergone as a representative of Southern ideas while a citizen of this county, he procured quite a number of volunteers, who pledged themselves to avenge, if not right, his wrongs. He stated, among other falsehoods, that he and John Brown had lived in the same county in Illinois, and that, after his removal to Kansas, Brown had persecuted him on account of his political opinions. At daybreak on the morning of the 30th, the invading force crossed the Marais des Cygnes, at Bundy's ford, and came toward Osawatomie from the west, Gen. Reid and Rev. Martin White in the advance. As they approached the village; when about a mile distant, White saw Frederick Brown in the road, and, remarking to Reid, 'There is John Brown,' dismounted, and, taking aim with a squirrel rifle, shot the young man dead. As the command came up, the men scattered out and approached the dwelling of Mr. Carr, on the right of the road where Frederick Brown had been killed. William Garrison and Cutler fled from the house in the direction of the Pottawatomie, followed by the Missourians. Garrison was killed, and Cutler seriously wounded. When a short distance from the village, the Missourians formed in line of battle, on the high ground west of the point where the John Brown monument is now located. They advanced under the cover of a ravine, to the north, in the direction of the Marais des Cygnes, and attacked the right of the Free-State line, under command of John Brown, causing Brown to fall back. Dr. Updegraff held the centre of the line next to Brown, and Capt. Cline the left. Simultaneously with the advance on Brown, the Missourians charged Captains Cline and Updegraff, Reid's forces throwing grape and canister into the position occupied by Brown, and the entire Free-State line was forced back to the river, which they successfully crossed. With the retreat of the Free-State men across the Marais des Cygnes, the battle ended, and the victors proceeded to the destruction and demolishment of the town. During the battle, William Williams, a Missourian, William Powers and George Partridge were killed, and Dr. Updegraff wounded. Charley Keiser was taken prisoner, and a few days afterward was killed by a guard of Kickapoo Rangers, at Cedar Creek. The forces actually engaged in this fight are variously estimated. On the Free-State side, it has always been claimed that the Missourians numbered four hundred, and that their loss in killed and wounded amounted to from thirty to forty, the entire number of the Free-State men engaged. The Missourians have always claimed that their loss did not include any dead, and admit that three were wounded. It is a lamentable fact that there is no evidence that the latter statement is not correct. The ruffians plundered the dwellings, fired the village and departed, leaving a wreck behind them. No attempt was made to interrupt their leisurely made return march, except a feint conducted by General Lane. At the Territorial election, held October 6th, Martin White, then of Bates county, Missouri, was elected to the Legislature from this district, receiving 127 votes, against 105 cast for J. P. Fox. Whitfield, for Congress, received 133 votes in Lykins county, the Free-State men refusing to vote."

The next year opened more peacefully and prosperously than its predecessor, but we have not space to trace the gradual, but certain, progress of political sentiment, which resulted in arraying the county on the side of freedom, and in the permanent establishment of its institutions. The first County Board consisted of Isaac Jacobs, Probate Judge, and James Beets and Henry Snyder, Commissioners; W. A. Heiskell was Clerk of the Board. The Paola Town Company was incorporated by the Legislature in 1855. The name of the town was derived from the Indian pronunciation of the word "Peoria," and was selected in honor of Baptiste Peoria. June 27th, 1857, a reorganization of the town company was effected. The title to the town site was not secured until March 11th, 1861. Paola has been the county seat from the organization of the county, Osawatomie was settled by emigrants from New York and Connecticut. It was laid out by the New England Emigrant Aid Society, and became headquarters for the Free-State men of the county. Though sacked by Buford and burned by Reid, it was rapidly and securely rebuilt, as the Free-State sentiment of the Territory increased and was strengthened. One of the State Asylums for the Insane is located at this point.

Lykins county was organized in 1855, and the name was changed to Miami, June 3, 1861.

Population in 1860, 4,980; in 1870, 11,725; increase in ten years, 6,745; population in 1875, 12,667; increase in five years, 942; population in 1878, 14,433; increase in eighteen years, 9,453. Rural population, 11,315; city or town population, 3,118; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 78.40.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
Marysville 1,374 Middle Creek 962 Miami 984
Mound 601 Osawatomie 1,200 Osage 1,110
Paola 2,610 Richland 1,100 Stanton 812
Sugar Creek 740 Valley 737 Wea 2,203

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 20 per cent.; upland, 80 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 10 per cent.; prairie, 90 per cent. Average width of bottoms, about one mile; general surface of the country, undulating.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, one-half mile. Varieties: walnut, hickory, cottonwood, pin oak, hackberry, sugar maple, and other small kinds. The county is reasonably well supplied with native timber, and cultivation, therefore, has not been extensive. Tree planting has been almost exclusively for ornament. Black walnut, black locust, hickory, oak, elm, cottonwood and soft maple are the chief varieties.

Principal Streams. - Marais des Cygnes river and Pottawatomie creek enter the county from the west, and form the Osage river in the southwest portion of the county, which flows east and south. Bull creek, from north to south, a large stream with two branches coming in from the northeast. Wea, from northeast to southwest, a large stream with three branches. Middle creek, from northeast to southwest. Sugar creek, from east to southwest. Walnut creek, from north to south. The county is well supplied with springs; good well water obtained at a depth of from 12 to 30 feet.

Coal. - Perhaps one-fourth of the area of the county is believed to be underlaid with coal, but the veins are too thin, and the quality too poor to justify working. A very small quantity has been mined for local use.

Building Stone, etc. - Good building stone in all parts of the county. In the southern and central portions of the county is found what is called the "Fontana marble," which resembles the Junction City stone. A species of limestone resembling gray granite, is found in Mound township. Good limestone in almost every locality.

Railroad Connections. - The Missouri River, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad runs north and south through the centre of the county. Stations, Paola and Fontana. The Paola & Holden Railroad, operated by the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad, runs north of east from Paola, joining the Missouri Pacific at Holden, Missouri.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 376,320; taxable acres, 366,470; under cultivation, 156,891.60; cultivated to taxable acres, 42.81 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 5,953.35.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, no returns; poultry and eggs, $8,930.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 604,755 bushels, or an average of 209 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 1; capital invested, $7,000; manufactured in 1875, 26,970 lbs.; in 1878, 74,553 lbs.; increase, 47,583 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 272,252 lbs.; in 1878, 214,446 lbs.; decrease, 57,806 lbs.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 6,731.00 6,729.00 8,266.00 659.00 1,616.00 3,224.00 8,230.00
Rye 300.00 299.00 292.00 80.00 563.00 783.00 100.00
Spring Wheat 331.00 332.00 345.00 10.00 15.00 13.00 -----
Corn 54,070.00 55,597.00 61,450.00 95,002.00 88,026.00 85,899.00 81,777.00
Barley 4.00 44.00 4.00 10.00 2.00 ----- -----
Oats 12,285.00 11,124.00 13,328.00 2,583.00 4,953.00 4,023.00 7,354.00
Buckwheat 238.00 249.00 118.00 277.00 297.50 88.00 -----
Irish Potatoes 838.40 1,262.00 1,089.00 1,520.25 1,272.50 892.00 874.00
Sweet Potatoes 16.00 13.00 62.00 19.62 72.75 14.75 648.35
Sorghum 178.00 290.00 379.00 865.75 574.25 428.50 481.00
Castor Beans ----- 19.25 221.00 571.50 524.50 787.50 -----
Cotton 1.00 2.50 4.00 21.50 63.50 21.50 1,949.00
Flax ----- 28.25 123.00 279.00 1,627.25 1,596.50 -
Hemp 10.00 10.00 ----- 18.00 31.00 ----- -----
Tobacco 7.00 10.00 8.00 27.50 63.75 4.00 145.25
Broom Corn ----- ----- 96.00 189.00 202.12 147.25 2,212.00
Millet and Hungarian 508.00 1,129.00 1,675.00 2,093.00 2,494.00 2,917.00 2,106.00
Timothy Meadow 2,232.00 2,637.00 3,559.00 1,339.00 760.00 1,570.50 1,421.00
Clover Meadow 561.00 561.00 967.00 333.00 135.00 554.25 24,800.00
Prairie Meadow 14,717.00 11,650.00 24,299.00 24,158.00 24,547.00 23,421.00 687.00
Timothy Pasture 131.00 131.00 426.00 308.00 54.00 78.00 425.00
Clover Pasture 266.00 266.00 121.00 21.00 12.00 120.00 196.00
Blue-Grass Pasture 473.00 473.00 622.00 851.00 316.00 237.50 23,486.00
Prairie Pasture 18,207.00 16,312.00 24,270.00 25,200.00 23,563.00 24,118.00 -----

Total 112,104.40 109,168.00 141,724.00 156,436.12 151,785.12 150,938.25 156,891.60

Increase in six years, 40- per cent.
Average increase per annum, 6.66- per cent.

RANK of Miami County in the Crops named below as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.

Wheat 16 20 36 63 61 52 57
Corn 3 1 1 1 1 3 1

Total Acreage in all Crops 3 4 1 1 4 5 10

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.

Winter Wheat - bu. 8,230.00 5,006.00 in. 148,140.00 86,884.00 in. $100,735.20 $39,479.20 in.
Rye - bu. 100.00 683.00 de. 1,300.00 15,926.00 de. 390.00 5,639.10 de.
Spring Wheat - bu. ----- 13.00 de. ----- 117.00 de. ----- 99.45 de.
Corn - bu. 81,777.00 4,122.00 de. 2,862,195.00 573,765.00 de. 572,439.00 114,753.00 de.
Barley - bu. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Oats - bu. 7,354.00 3,331.00 in. 316,222.00 139,210.00 in. 50,595.52 22,273.60 in.
Buckwheat - bu. ----- 88.00 de. ----- 1,320.00 de. ----- 1,056.00 de.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 874.00 18.00 de. 78,660.00 16,220.00 in. 39,330.00 1,866.00 in.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. ----- 14.75 de. ----- 1,770.00 de. 1,620.00 661.90 in.
Sorghum - gall. 648.35 219.85 in. 74,560.25 25,282.75 in. 37,280.13 12,641.38 in.
Castor Beans - bu. 481.00 306.50 de. 6,734.00 1,928.50 in. 8,417.50 245.00 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- 21.50 de. ----- 3,655.00 de. ----- 365.50 de.
Flax - bu. 1,949.00 352.50 in. 25,337.00 7,775.50 in. 25,337.00 6,897.42 in.
Hemp - lbs. ------ ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Tobacco - lbs. ----- 4.00 de. ----- 2,960.00 de. ----- 296.00 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 145.25 2.00 de. 116,200.00 1,600.00 de. 4,357.50 60.00 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 2,212.00 705.00 de. 6,636.00 656.50 de. 28,203.00 2,790.13 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 2,106.00 535.50 in. 3,369.60 856.80 in. 17,690.40 4,498.20 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 1,421.00 866.75 in. 2,842.00 1,733.50 in. 14,920.50 9,100.87 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 24,800.00 1,379.00 in. 34,720.00 1,930.60 in. 112,840.00 6,274.45 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 687.00 609.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 425.00 305.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 196.00 41.50 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 23,486.00 632.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----

Total 156,891.60 5,953.35 in. ----- ----- $1,012,535.75 $24,220.06 de.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 5,943; in 1878, 7,239; increase, 1,296. Mules and asses, in 1877, 711; in 1878, 783; increase, 72. Milch cows, in 1877, 6,567; in 1878, 6,964; increase, 397. Other cattle, in 1877, 16,144; in 1878, 17,066; increase, 922. Sheep, in 1877, 2,306; in 1878, 1,519; decrease, 787. Swine, in 1877, 24,545; in 1878, 35,306; increase, 10,761.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - None reported.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 4,659 pounds.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $461.997.49.

Horticulture. - Number of trees in bearing: apple, 72,885; pear, 2,654; peach, 91,807; plum, 1,718; cherry, 22,306. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 72,254; pear, 3,219; peach, 20,745; plum, 1,469; cherry, 7,219.

Herd Law. - The herd law is not in force in the county. Public sentiment is very strongly against it. In behalf of the law it is urged by its friends that it would encourage immigration, and that it is an injustice to compel the poor man to fence against the rich man's stock. On the other hand, it is held that the law would discourage stock raising, and glut the market with surplus farm productions.

Fences. - Stone, 19,436 rods; cost, $29,154. Rail, 389,129 rods; cost, $486,411.25. Board, 47,886 rods; cost, $67,040.40. Wire, 31,290 rods; cost, $21,903. Hedge, 358,999 rods; cost, $179,499.50. Total rods of fence, 846,740; total cost, $784,008.15.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 665; pounds of honey, 3,184.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $55,196.

Manufactures. - Middle Creek township: steam flouring and saw mill, capital, $2,000. City of Paola: steam flouring mills, 2, capital, $9,300; furniture factory, capital, $200; harness and saddlery manufactories, 2; capital, $500; steam-power wagon manufactory, capital, $1,500; carriage manufactory, capital, $8,000; steam cheese factory, capital, $7,000; brewery, capital, $1,500; cigar manufactory, capital, $1,400; brick kiln, capital, $100. Stanton township: steam saw and grist mill, capital, $1,000. Wea township; steam flouring mill and elevator, capital, $10,000; horse-power elevator, capital, $700; steam wagon manufactory, capital, $3,656; wind-power feed mill, capital, $500; pottery, capital, $500.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $835,871; railroad property, $328,735.69; total assessed valuation of all property, $4,101,874.69; true valuation of all property, $6,836,457.82. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $375,866.66; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .09+.

Newspaper History. - In the latter part of 1856, or the beginning of 1857, the Southern Kansas Herald was established at Osawatomie, by Charles E. Griffiths. In December, 1858, J. M. Kane purchased an interest in the paper, which he retained one year, when Mr. Griffiths again became the sole proprietor. The publication of the Herald was continued at Osawatomie until July 1, 1860, when it was removed to Paola by B. F. Kinter, who had purchased the office. After its removal to Paola, the office was purchased by Col. G. A. Colton, and he sold it to McReynolds & Kane. The name of the paper was changed by Col. Colton to the Argus. McReynolds & Kane published the Argus till May, 1866, when McReynolds sold his interest to Col. Colton, and three months afterward the material was sold to W. H. Johnson, who removed it to Iola. The publication of the Argus was continued till the fall of 1866.

The publication of the Paola Chief was commenced on January 1st, 1860, by W. B. and A. O. Wagstaff. The Chief was continued for six months, and then suspended.

The Crusader was established by T. H. Ellis in 1861, using the material on which the Chief had been printed. Among the editors who assisted Mr. Ellis was B. F. Simpson. Mr. Ellis ceased to publish the Chief in 1863.

The Rural Gazette was published at intervals during the years 1866 and 1867. It was edited for a time by the late E. F. Smith.

On the 18th of August, 1866, John McReynolds and Basil M. Simpson began the publication of the Miami Republican, with politics as indicated by its name. In 1868, McReynolds retired and Mr. Simpson continued to publish the paper till May 25, 1873, when he sold it to the Republican Printing Company, composed of Thomas, J. D., O. H. and T. O. Greason. In the spring of the following year, the Republican was published as a Reform paper. March 25, 1875, John H. Rice purchased a half interest and became editor of the paper, the publishing firm being Rice & Greasons. December 4, 1875, A. H. Longley purchased a half interest, and the paper was published by Rice & Longley. January 15, 1877, Rice purchased Longley's interest, becoming the sole owner, and still continues the publication of the paper.

In February, 1866, the publication of the Advertiser was commenced at Paola by A. Gore; W. R. Wagstaff and George Kingsley being editors. It was a Democratic paper. In the summer of 1868, Warren Mitchell became publisher, and afterward John McReynolds was associated with him. The Advertiser was published till 1870, when the material was removed to Florence and used in the publication of the Pioneer.

The publication of the Fontana Gazette was commenced at the town of that name in September, 1870, by Jones & Weylandt. Its first editor was Edward Burdette Gaines. He was followed by a Mr. Smith, then by Will. S. Visscher, and finally by E. F. Gates. The paper suspended in the fall of 1871, and the material was moved to Kansas City.

The Paola Democrat was established by Thomas H. Ellis on the 3d of July, 1871. As indicated by its name, it advocated the principles of the Democratic party. Immediately after the Presidential campaign, the Democrat suspended.

July 10, 1871, the Kansas Spirit was started, with Perry & Bright as editors and publishers. Mr. Bright soon retired, leaving L. J. Perry sole proprietor. Mr. Perry changed the name to Western. Spirit. In 1872 and 1873, S. M. Ford, now of the Kansas City Mail, was connected with the Spirit. June 14, 1878, Mr. Perry sold the paper to Messrs. Carroll, Clark & Highley, and since that time, under the editorial charge of Capt. Thomas M. Carroll, the Spirit has been a Democratic paper.

In June, 1876, E. F. Heisler began, at Louisburg, the publication of the Herald. It is Greenback in politics, and is still published.

August 8, 1878, the first number of the Republican Citizen made its appearance. It is edited by A. R. Wickersham, and published by Wickersham & Greason.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 93; school population, 5,845; average salary of teachers per month, males, $38.66; females, $28.15. School houses built during 1878, frame, 1. Total number of school houses, 91; log, 2; frame, 75; brick, 1; stone, 13. Value of all school property, $98,329. The school grounds of a few districts are ornamented with shade trees - some naturally, others artificially; generally, very little attention has been paid to ornamentation.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 7; membership, 277; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $5,500. Congregational: organizations, 2; membership, 69; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $5,500. Episcopal: membership, 10. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 18; membership, 800; church edifices, 9; value of church property, $7,500. Presbyterian: organizations, 5; membership, 175; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $4,000. Roman Catholic: organizations, 3; membership, 600; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $3,000. Universalist: organizations, 1; membership, 38.