Pages 5-6, transcribed by Carolyn Ward from History of Allen and Woodson Counties, Kansas: embellished with portraits of well known people of these counties, with biographies of our representative citizens, cuts of public buildings and a map of each county / Edited and Compiled by L. Wallace Duncan and Chas. F. Scott. Iola Registers, Printers and Binders, Iola, Kan.: 1901; 894 p., [36] leaves of plates: ill., ports.; includes index.






Location and Natural Features

Allen county is located in the southeastern part of the State, in the second tier of counties from the east line and in the third tier from the south line, 109 miles south of Kansas City. It is twenty-one miles north and south and twenty-four miles east and west, containing 504 square miles, or about 322,560 acres. It is divided into twelve townships, as follows: Geneva, Carlyle, Deer Creek, Osage, Marmaton, Elm, Iola, Elsmore, Salem Cottage Grove, Humboldt and Logan.

The Neosho, the third largest river in the State, enters it at the northwest corner and follows a generally southeasterly course, affording a large and steady supply of water and furnishing abundant water power at Iola and Humboldt, where dams have been constructed, the greater part of the year. The river has numerous tributaries, the largest being Indian creek, Martin creek, Deer creek, Elm creek, Coal creek and Owl creek. The Neosho and all its tributaries were heavily wooded when the country was first settled, and large bodies of native timber still remain on all of them. The Marmaton river rises east of the center of the county and flows southeast through Marmaton and Elsmore townships. The Little Osage river rises north of the center of the county and flows southeast. Each of these rivers has small tributaries. Good well water is obtained nearly everywhere in the county at a depth of from twenty to thirty feet, and at numerous points deep wells, drilled to a depth of about two hundred feet, have supplied never failing water.

The river and creek bottoms are wide and level, comprising about one-tenth the area of the county. The uplands are gently rolling prairie. There is comparatively little surface rock, although in nearly every township some


good quarries have been opened, the stone being usually blue and white limestone and red sandstone.

When the county was first settled considerable surface coal was found in Osage and Cottage Grove townships, and it was thought that a considerable portion of the county might be under laid with coal at a greater depth. Subsequent prospecting, however, has not developed any veins of sufficient thickness to warrant working.

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