(from a book written in 1893)

The following text was transcribed from chapters on the history of education in individual Kansas counties found on pages 203-213 in:

compiled by Kansas educators and published under the auspices of the Kansas State Historical Society, for the Columbian Exposition.
(Topeka, Kan. : Hamilton Printing Company : E. H. Snow, state printer, 1893)



SHAWNEE COUNTY (by Josiah Jordan, county superintendent) -- The early history of education in Shawnee county cannot be made up from official records; in fact, very little of the early work in the schools of Shawnee county was recorded in any manner, and it is only by a diligent search through old letters, newspapers and miscellaneous documents in possession of old settlers, and owing to the fact that the writer is somewhat of an antediluvian himself, that some information has been gleaned that may be found of interest to the student of educational progress. There is no doubt that the unwritten history of the early 50's would make what Jim Lane used to call "mighty interesting reading."

The records in the county superintendent's office furnish very little information as to the schools previous to 1865. The reports from that date to 1880 are more complete, and the reports from 1880 to 1892 are full and in excellent order. In 1855, there were several private schools in the county. It is not possible to ascertain when the first school was opened. Miss Sarah C. Harlan taught a school in Topeka in the fall of this year. The school was held in a small shanty made of cottonwood boards, until the first snowfall. This had a depressing effect. The teacher got married, thus establishing a dangerous precedent which her followers have maintained to this day. In the spring of 1856, private schools were taught in Topeka by Miss Jennie Allen and Miss Carrie Whiting. Schools of this character were also in progress at this time at Rochester, Tecumseh, Auburn, and other parts of the county. Only a partial list of names of these pioneer teachers of the early 50's can be obtained. The names are: Sarah Harlan, Jennie Allen, Sarah Allen, Carrie Whiting, Olive Packard, Maria Bowker, Phoebe R. Plummer, and Jennie Penfield.

It must be remembered that these teachers were the sisters, wives and daughters of that sturdy, patriotic class of pioneers who came to Kansas not only to subdue the prairie sod and make homes for themselves, but they came to uphold and fight if need be, for the great principle of human liberty involved in the free-State issue. Those brave women who gathered abut them in sod houses and log cabins the children of "Bleeding Kansas" are, perhaps, more deserving of a place in history than are some of the more noisy "statesmen" of that period. But those women teachers left a monument more enduring, more precious to the State, than any marble shaft or stately granite tomb. The barefoot boy who went trudging across the prairie to school, his ragged straw hat just visible above the prairie grass and golden rod, is the patriotic, active, pushing citizen, the "Kansas man" of 1893. The West knows him and respects him, the East is just getting acquainted with him, and the world will know him quite well before the "Fair" is over.

In 1858 and 1859, the tide of immigration to Kansas and Shawnee county swelled proportionately as the echoes of the border war died away. Men came with their families and their goods, and settled down to stay. Shawnee county was soon fairly well settled with a most desirable class of citizens. The schools began to assume a more systematic condition.

In 1859, Rev. R. M. Fish was elected county superintendent of schools. The oldest document on file in the superintendent's office is a notice of the organization of district No,8, known as Rice district. It is dated July 30, 1859. There is no doubt that Superintendent Fish organized several districts under the territorial law this year, as the report of the Territorial Superintendent of Schools reports 14 districts in the county organized in 1859.

The schoolhouses were mostly built of logs. The writer well remembers the first schoolhouse built in district No. 11, where he was taught his letters. The house was built in 1862. The logs were bought of Burnett, the chief of the Pottawatomie tribe, who died on the banks of the Shunganunga, a lazy stream that flows peacefully along the shadow of Burnett's Mound, a familiar landmark to the inhabitants of Shawnee county. Our fathers hauled the logs with ox teams, and built the schoolhouse on the Fitzpatrick homestead, near the Burlingame road. The house was "chinked" between the logs with sticks, stones, and mortar; but certain lawless, tow-headed boys would ofttimes knock the chinking out, in consequence of which acts the ventilation was all that could be desired—rather more than was agreeable, in fact, on cold mornings.

But the first school in this district was held in a long shanty owned by the Rev. Jesse Stone. It stood near the present home of Perry T. Foster. The first school was taught in 1857, by Miss Olive Packard, a live Yankee girl of 16 summers. Her career as teacher was cut short by the arrival of a certain young man, who persuaded her to change her name to Mrs. Wm. Owen, and again the ranks of Shawnee county teachers met a loss. But Mrs. Owen did not lose her interest in the educational affairs of the county, as she is the mother of 10 living children, five of whom have taught school in Shawnee county.

School district No. 23, now the city of Topeka, was well supplied with schools, judging from the local papers of that time. The Emigrant aid Society erected a four-room brick schoolhouse, near the corner of Fifth and Harrison streets, in 1856. The Topeka Association afterwards bought the building of the aid society, and used it as a public schoolhouse for a number of years. In the fall of 1859, November 20, D. B. Emmert opened an evening commercial school in Museum Hall, Topeka. The Topeka Normal School opened in the brick schoolhouse, above mentioned, in November, 1859. The advertisement states that Prof. C. W. Bowen, A. M., was principal, and Miss Jennie Penfield, preceptress. The Topeka Academy, E. B. Conklin, principal, assisted by Mrs. H. E. Conklin, Mary E. Steele, and Clara Foster, opened September 12, 1859. The announcement was made that the following branches would be taught: Reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, geography, grammar, U. S. history, Latin, Greek, and music on the piano and melodeon. In 1860, W. W. Ross, clerk of district No. 23, made a report, giving the names and ages of all the persons over five and under 21 years of age in the district (Topeka). The total number was 191. There were 50 enrolled in school. On March 12, 1860, Miss Mary Pickett opened a select school at the brick schoolhouse. Her terms for tuition were $3 per month.

In 1860, the clerk of district No. 1 (Auburn) reported 108 pupils of school age, and an enrollment of 86. Miss Brigham taught a nine-months school, receiving $32 per month. District No.3 (Wakarusa) reported 21 children residing in the district. A six-months school was taught three months by "Mr. Thomas" and three months by "Miss Holliday." The district clerks in those days did not bother themselves or the superintendent with the teachers' given names. Mr. Thomas was paid $20 per month, and Miss Holliday $10 per month. It is to be presumed that Miss Holliday "boarded around. District No. 20, Geo. B. Holmes, clerk, reported a three months school taught by Miss Sarah W. Austin, who received $12 per month and board. The following notation is made by the clerk: "Bill for board of teacher, $24. We shall probably be able to raise enough money to pay out teacher her wages, but not enough to pay the board bill." District No. 22, now College Hill, reported a three-months school in 1860, taught by Jane F. Nichols. District No. 4 maintained a four-months school, and paid the teacher $25 per month. Seventeen children attended school. Robert Simmerwell was district clerk.

The drouth of 1860 is still remembered by those living here at the time; and it was owning to the failure of crops and general hard times that more than half the districts in the county failed to sustain any school. A great many of the homes were deserted; the prairie, parched and desolate, was dotted with empty houses. All honor to that noble band of teachers who kept the sacred fires of education burning throughout those days of trial, while the hot winds withered the grass, burned the corn, and dried up the springs. It was indeed a year long to be remembered by Kansas people. John Brown's death, the election of Abraham Lincoln and the intense political excitement of the times all serve to impress other events of a peaceful nature on the mind of the old timer.

In 1861, Rev. Peter McVicar was elected county superintendent. The civil war began, and Shawnee county sent many of her best men to the front. The reports of this year are meager, and indicated that but little was done in the line of education. But one clerk's report can be found for 1861 which shows a school taught during the year. James S. Griffing, of district No. 8, reports a three-months school, taught by Miss Marcia Pierce. She was paid $30 per month—an indication of the subsequent "war prices." Sixteen pupils were enrolled. Reports from a number of the strongest districts in the county show that no schools were in session in those districts. Of course, schools were maintained at Topeka, Auburn, Tecumseh, and perhaps two or three other points, but it seems that they were private schools.

In 1863, 20 clerks reported to the county superintendent that there were 978 pupils of school age (5 to 21) in the county, 593 of whom were enrolled. The average daily attendance for the entire year was 395. The average length of school term was four months. The teaching was done by 18 women and 2 men, who received a total amount of $1,280.10. In 1865, nine more clerks reported than in 1863. The total number of pupils of school age had increased in two years from 978 to 1,499. The enrollment had almost doubled, being 1,022. There were 37 women employed in the county as teachers, who received an average salary of $28.50 per month. The five men teachers employed this year received an average of $41.20 per month. A steady increase in school population is shown until 1870, when there were 4,500 pupils of school age in the county, nearly five times as many as there were seven years before. The number of districts had increased from 14, in 1860, to 57, in 1870. There were 3,000 children enrolled, with an average daily attendance of 1,670. The school term averaged 61/2 months in length. There were 85 teachers in the county. The men were paid $50 per month, the women $35. It is interesting to note that the average wages of women teachers has gradually been nearing that of the men for the past 30 years in Shawnee county. The highest wages of any teacher in 1892, in the district schools of the county, is paid to a woman. The next highest is also paid to a woman. District No.83 pays Miss Emma P. Cooper, $85 per month, and district No. 97 pays Miss Eliza Nagle $80 per month. Nine women teachers in Shawnee county receive $60 per month and upward this Columbian year.

In 1880, a most astonishing increase in school population is shown. Let us compare the statistics for 1880 with those of 1870. In 1870, the school population was 4,500; in 1880, 9,258—more than double. In 1870, there were 3,000 pupils enrolled; in 1880, we find more than twice that number, viz., 6,077. The average daily attendance has increased from 1,670 to 3,542. In the year 1880, there were built nine schoolhouses, making a total of 91 in the county. In 1870, there were 52 in the county, six of which were made of logs. During the decade from 1870 to 1880, the last log schoolhouse disappeared, from the reports, at least.

The report for 1892 is before us, and we briefly summarize it, as follows: There are 98 organized school districts in the county. The school population is 17,079. There are 10,797 children as pupils, with an average daily attendance of 7,472. It takes 228 teachers to train this little army—82 men and 146 women. The men receive an average salary of $58 per month, the women $50 per month. The value of the school property of the county is estimated at $671,232. There are 240 schoolrooms in the county. The amount of money raised and collected for school purposes during the year was $256,000; the amount paid out, $197,000; leaving a balance on hand for the year of $59,000. The educational system of the county is in a most satisfactory condition, although far from perfect. In 1889, the present (1892) superintendent introduced a plan of graduation and classification which has unified the work of the county materially. A systematic record of the work of each pupil is kept in a permanent register, separate from the attendance register. A new teacher can, by referring to this, ascertain just what work has been done by the pupils the previous term. Reports of the classification, graduation and standing of each pupil are sent twice each year to the superintendent—at the end of the first month and at the end of the term.

A uniform system of text-books is used throughout the county, having been adopted September, 1891, for a period of five years. The books in use are as follows: Barnes's series of readers; White's two-book series of arithmetics; Butler's geographies, descriptive and physical; Reed's Speller; Hutchinson's Laws of Health, and "The House I Live in," a primary physiology; the Eclectic United States History; Harvey's English Grammar; Powell's "How to Talk;" Roudebush's Writing System; Thomson's Intellectual Arithmetic; Thomson's Algebra; Gage's Physics; Williams & Rogers's Bookkeeping; Graphic Object Drawing; the International Dictionary; Townsend's Shorter Course in Civil Government; and Canfield's Local Government in Kansas.

Soon after the adoption of these books, the writer prepared a "Course of Study for the Schools of Shawnee County," which is now in use. It is adapted to the needs of the teacher in the district school, and makes the gradation of the district school practicable. The normal institutes of Shawnee county have been a great help to the teachers. There were few institutes held in the early days. The first institute ever held in the county was April 21, 22, and 23, 1865. Lectures were given by Rev. P. McVicar, Prof. C. H. Haynes, and Hon. I. T. Goodnow. Discussions of practical questions of interest to teachers were also held. In 1876, a four-weeks normal institute was held Miss Una Hebron, who was then county superintendent, managed the institute, and it was very successful. In 1877. a normal-institute law was passed, requiring each county superintendent to hold a normal institute in his respective county, for a term of not less than four weeks. Under the provisions of this law, successful normal institutes have been held each year.

Teachers' associations have been maintained regularly since 1880. Previous to that time they were not very successful or regular. A program is prepared and printed in September each year. The meetings are usually held on the afternoon of the first Saturday in each month. Papers are read and discussed; current events are discussed; scientific and literary topics are introduced. The teachers derive great benefit from these meetings. In 1892, a new feature was added, lectures by prominent men of Topeka being given every other month. This has proved a pleasing and satisfactory innovation, and it is quite likely that it will be a permanent feature in the association programs of the future.

The school buildings of the present are of a somewhat different style of architecture from that of 30 years ago. Instead of the rough log structure standing on a slope of prairie surrounded by a wealth of wild grass, golden rod, and wild roses, forming a romantic and picturesque subject for poet or painter, the Shawnee county schoolhouse of 1892 is of a more practical and prosy nature. It is generally built of wood, is neatly painted, and usually surrounded by a neat fence, and by graceful shade trees. In a district before mentioned, where the writer learned his ABC's, the old log house has been replaced by a handsome frame structure, with a low porch in front, surmounted by a stately belfry. It is finished tastefully inside, and has two cloakrooms, and a library well filled with choice reading matter for all grades. The school is well supplied with the latest maps, charts, globes, blackboards, and is seated with handsome, comfortable furniture.

One district, No. 35, has built a brick schoolhouse costing $10,000; and there are several that cost $4,000 and upward. Nearly one-half the schools are supplied with good libraries. Many school boards furnish daily papers, magazines and literary papers for daily use in the schoolroom.

It must be said that there are a few districts in Shawnee county that have almost stood still for 30 years. There are schoolhouses that are dirty, out of repair, yards unfenced, outhouses in a disgraceful condition, windows broken, no school apparatus. But such schoolhouses are rare exceptions.

The lowest wages paid any teacher in 1892 was $30 per month. There is a growing demand for trained teachers. The school men and school women and the parents are realizing that it does not pay to train teachers at the expense of their own children. They see the advantage of good normal schools, and the time is not far distant when a young man or woman will not attempt to teach in a public school without first having received some professional training.

On the 21st day of October, 1892, the schools of Shawnee county observed the four hundredth anniversary of the greatest discovery the world has ever known. "Columbus Day" was more generally observed, and in a more fitting manner, than has been any other special-day observance in the history of the county. Nearly every schoolhouse raised a flag and followed the official program, as prepared by the national committee. It is common in most of the schools of the county to observe Washington's birthday, and quite a number of the schools have had flag floating over them for several years.

The public schools are a source of pride to the people of Shawnee county. They recognize in them a fuller source of power, and an intellectual force more potent than that of the fabled Hercules in the physical world. They see, in the patriotic, energetic, busy boys in the public schools at the close of the nineteenth century, a foreshadowing of the high-minded, intelligent, God-fearing citizen of the great American republic, who will enter the twentieth century equipped for the high destiny awaiting him.

When the five hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America shall be held, let it be held in Kansas—the exact geographical center of the greatest republic the world has ever seen. At that time, the center of population will have shifted far to the westward, and Shawnee county will be near the center of the most remarkable agricultural region on the face of the globe; the Anglo-Saxon will have long since ceased his restless and resistless march towards the setting sun, and will have quietly settled down in the bosom of the American continent, there to solve the great problems of future centuries.

Washburn College (by Luther D. Whittemore, professor of Latin language and literature) -— This institution was chartered February 6, 1865, under the name of Lincoln College. The name was changed to Washburn College, November, 19, 1868, in recognition of a gift of $25,000 from Ichabod Washburn, of Worcester, Mass., and to avoid the confusion resulting from the use of the name of Lincoln by other institutions of learning.

The plan of organizing a Christian college of a high grade under the patronage of the Congregational Churches of Kansas was first presented at the meeting of the General Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches held in Topeka in April, 1857, when a committee was appointed to secure a location for such a college.

The first building was erected in 1865, at the corner of Tenth and Jackson streets, in the city of Topeka. This building was afterwards purchased by the board of education, and is now used for public-school purposes. The present site of the college, including 160 acres of land, was donated, in 1865, by Mr. John Ritchie. In 1872, work was commenced on the building which is now known as Science Hall, and in the fall of 1874 the college was moved to this building, in which for several years its whole work was carried on. In it were chapel, recitation rooms, laboratories, lodging rooms and study rooms for faculty and students, dining room, and kitchen. In 1879, Hartford Cottage was built, as a home for young women; and, in 1882, South Cottage, since destroyed by fire, was erected, to accommodate the increasing number of lady students. In 1882, the building now known as Music Hall was erected, as a dormitory for young men. In 1886, two buildings were completed: Halbrook Hall, as a woman's home, and the Boswell Memorial Library, named respectively in recognition of gifts from Miss Mary W. Holbrook, Mass., and Mr. Charles Boswell, of Hartford, Conn. The last building erected is the chapel, which was completed in 1890, to the building of which Mr. W. A. Slater, of Norwich, Conn., contributed $15,000. In 1889, the interior of Science Hall was remolded and adapted to the needs of the scientific departments. The total cost of buildings erected and owned by the college is not far from $150,000. The total value of all college property, including land, buildings, library, apparatus, museum, and endowment, is about $500,000. This property has been acquired chiefly by individual donations.

January 3, 1866, an academy or college preparatory department was opened to students, under the charge of Rev. Samuel D. Bowker as principal, and Mr. Geo. H. Collier and Mr. Edward F. Hobart as assistants. In June, 1866, Rev. H. Q. Butterfield was called to the chair of the Latin and Greek languages, and in 1869, he was elected president. Doctor Butterfield resigned in November, 1870, and in February, 1871, Rev. Peter McVicar was chosen president.

The first board of trustees included five men who are still members of that body: Rev. Peter McVicar, Rev. S. D. Storrs, Rev. Richard Cordley, Mr. H. D. Rice, and Maj. H. W. Fransworth. The board of trustees at present is composed of the gentlemen just named and Rev. James G. Dougherty, D. D., Judge David J. Brewer, LL.D., Mr. Albe B. Whiting, Rev. L. Blakesley, D. D., Mr. Charles W. Jewell, Hon. Solon O. Thacher, LL.D., Hon. T. Dwight Thacher, Samuel F. Mather, M. D., Rev. L. Payson Broad, and Mr. S. H. Fairfield.

When the school was opened, in 1866, the courses of study offered were a college preparatory course of three years, consisting chiefly of Latin, Greek, and mathematics, and a ladies' course of four years, in which instruction was given in French and some subjects in science. In the following year, a collegiate course of four years was added, in which Greek, Latin and mathematics were the prescribed subjects, until the third term of the junior year. In the remainder of the junior year, and in the senior year, limited courses were offered in philosophy and science. In the third year of the history of the institution, a scientific course was introduced. These courses have been modified and enlarged from year to year; and there are now offered a college preparatory course, requiring three years of study for its completion, and collegiate courses of study leading to the degrees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and bachelor of letters. The elective system has been introduced, making it possible for a student to select some line or lines of study in language, science or literature which he may pursue for several successive years, thus deriving the benefit that comes from consecutive study in one subject. Work is prescribed in a sufficient number of subjects to prevent a student from omitting those studies which should find a place in every thorough system of education.

Subjects which are prescribed for one degree are open as lectures to students studying for the other degrees. For graduation, a student is required to complete 15 full courses of study in addition to the work in English and rhetoric. Of these 15 courses, seven are prescribed and eight are elective. Unless otherwise indicated, the courses of instruction continue through an academic year.

Below are the names of the professors and instructors, together with the courses of instruction offered in each department in the academic year 1892-93. The letter A., S. or L. indicates that the subject so designated is prescribed for candidates for the degree of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, or bachelor of letters, respectively.

Peter McVicar, president, and professor of mental science. B. A., Beloit College, 1856; M. A., 1871; D. D., 1871; instructor in Beloit College, 1857; student in Union Theological Seminary, 1858; graduate of Andover Theological Seminary, 1860; pastor of First Congregational Church, Topeka, Kas., 1860-66; State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Kansas, 1867-71; elected president of Washburn College, 1871.
1. Psychology. A discussion of physiological, and some results of laboratory work.—Materialistic views.—Theories of perception.—Hypnotism and other forms of abnormal phenomena.—Inductive and deductive modes of reasoning.—Intuition.—The relation of experience in the apprehension of first truths or categories. Four hours a week. Second half year. A. S. L.
2. Ethics. (a) An inquiry into the nature of the sensibilities and the will.—The nature and function of conscience.—Origin of the sense of obligation.—The doctrine of casuistry.—A discussion of the various theories of the standard of right and wrong.—Moral science applied. (b) the evidences of the Christian religion.—The teachings of nature respecting the existence and attributes of God.—Man's moral relation, a plan of human redemption, and the immortality of the soul.—The necessity of a revealed religion—its external and internal evidence.—The Christian and other religions compared.—The cumulative evidence of the Christian religion as a divine revelation. Four hours a week. Second half year. A. S. L.
3. Civil Science. In the study of this science the most recent data are consulted. The varying phases of the great issues of the day are studied in the addresses of the ablest statesmen, campaign debates, and the annual reports of the departments of the General Government, as well as in standard treatises. Each member of the class is required to write theses on the fundamental principles and practical application of the science. A prominent place is given to the consideration of values, and the questions that naturally arise in the province of social and national economy. The college and State libraries afford excellent facilities in this line of investigation. Four hours a week. Second half-year.

Joseph T. Lovewell, professor of physics and chemistry. B. A. Yale University, 1857; Ph. D., 1873; superintendent of schools and principal of high school, Madison, Wis., 1860, 1865-66; principal Prairie du Chien College, Wisconsin, 1866-68; professor of mathematics, State Normal School, White Water, Wis., 1868-72; instructor in Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University, 1874; professor of physics and chemistry, State College, Pennsylvania, 1875-77.
1. Physics. Grant.—Lectures, laboratory work and experiments are prominent.—Reference is constantly made to the literature of the subject.—The reading of the students is directed, and essays and discussions are required. Four hours a week. A. S.
2. Physics. Kohlrausch's Physical Measurements.—Physical manipulations, with special reference to the practical applications of electricity.—Physics of the ether. The studies of this course are all conducted in the laboratory. The preparation of these is an important feature of the work. Four hours a week.
3. Astronomy. Elements.—Recitations, with observation and study of the stars. Three hours a week. First half year.
4. Mechanical Drawing. Principals of orthographic, isometric and oblique projections.—Spherical projection.—Elements of perpective. Four hours a week. First half year.
5. General Chemistry. Recitations and laboratory practice. Four hours a week. Second half year. S.
6. Analytical Chemistry. Qualitative analysis.—Organic chemistry.—Blowpipe analysis and determination of species.—Metallurgy an assaying.—Lectures, recitations, and laboratory work. Eight hours a week.
7. Analytical Chemistry. Quantitative analysis.—Original investigations and technical work with reference to theses. Eight hours a week.

Luther D. Whittemore, professor of the Latin language and literature. B. A., Amherst College, 1880; M. A., 1884; instructor in Barre Academy, Barre, Vt., 1880-81; superintendent of city schools and principal of high school, Hiawatha, Kas., 1881-84.
1. Vergil, books I-VI of the Eneid and the Bucolics.—Latin prosody. Five hours a week. A. S. L. This course must be taken by freshmen who do not offer it as a part of their preparation for admission.
2. Livey, books XXI. Cicero, De Amicitia.—Exercise in the writing of Latin. Four hours a week. First half year. A. L.
3. Horace, Odes, Ars Poetica, Carmen Saeculare. —The history of Roman literature in the age of Augustus. Five hours a week. Second half year. A. L.
4. Plautus, Captivi.—Terrace, Andria, and Adelphi.—Early Roman literature. Three hours a week. First half year.
5. Tacitus, Germania and Agricola.—Juvenal, selection. The history of Rome under the emperors. Three hours a week. Second half year.
6. Plautus, Trinummus.—Terence, Heautontimoroumenos and Phormio.—Studios in Roman philology. Three hours a week. First half year.
7. The letters of Cicero and Pliny.—The private life of the Romans. Three hours a week. Second. half year. Courses 6 and 7 are given in alternate years with 4 and 5.

Fordyce P. Cleaves, professor of oratory and rhetoric. B. A., Dartmouth College, 1887; M. A. Emerson College of Oratory, 1890; instructor in rhetoric, Emerson College of Oratory, 1888; instructor in oratory, Pennell Institute and Portland Military Academy, 1889.
1. Rhetoric and English Composition. J. F. Genung's Rhetoric and Handbook of Rhetorical Analysis. Three hours a week. First half year. A. S. L.
2. Elocution, including Orthoepy. One play of Shakespeare read critically and for dramatic expression.—Dowden's Shakespeare. One hour a week. Second half year. A. S. L. Each student in courses 1 and 2 is required to write three essays upon subjects bearing upon work done in class; and each student is also required to give one public address.
3. Elocution, including Prthoepy. Readings from Shakespeare. Each student is required to prepare two essays upon some feature of Shakespearian work. One hour a week. Second half year. A. S. L.
4. Six Themes. Lectures and discussion of themes in class. One hour a week. Second half year. A. S. L. Courses 3 and 4 are prescribed for sophomores. Each student will deliver one public address.
5. Argumentative Composition and extemporaneous speaking. One hour a week. First half year. A. S. L. Course 5 is prescribed for juniors. Each member of the class is required to give one oration and one pubic extemporaneous address.
6. Oratory. Lectures.—Vocal interpretation of best literary work.—Liturgical reading.—Emerson's Sixteen Perfective Steps in Art. One hour a week. First half year. A. S. L.
7. Individual training for public speaking. One hour a week. Second half year. A. S. L. Courses 7 and 8 are prescribed for seniors. Two orations are required from each member of the senior class. General rhetorical exercises occur each Friday morning of the school year, at 8:30 o'clock.
8. Logic. Jevons. Three hours a week. Second half year.

Frederick W. Ellis, professor of the Greek language and literature. B. A., Yale University, 1889; professor of ancient languages, Davis Military College, Winston N. C., 1891-92.
1. Beginning Greek. Harper & Water's Inductive Greek Method, including a study of grammatical forms and the reading of book I of Xenophon's Anabasis. Five hours a week. A.
2. Xenophon's Anabasis, books II and III. Exercises is prose composition.—Study of syntax and special drill in the acquisition of a vocabulary. Five hours a week. First half year. A.
3. Homer's Iliad, books I and II. Study of Greek legends and mythology. Five hours a week. Second half year. A. Courses 1, 2 and 3 may be offered as a part of the requirements for admission to the freshman class.
4. Selections from Herodotus. Readings in Greek history.—Lectures on ancient history to the time of Herodotus. Four hours a week. First half year. A.
5. Selections from Thucydides and Xenophon's Hellenica. Readings in Greek history.—Lectures on Greek history and historians. Five hour's a week. Second half. A.
6. Plato's Apology and Crito. Selections and sight reading from Xenophon's Memorabilia.—Studies in Greek philosophy and ethics.—Lectures. Four hours a week. First half year. A.
7. Sophocles' Antigone. Eschylus' Prometheus Bound.—Study of dramatic literature through translations.—Lectures on the Greek theater and the origin and growth of the Greek drama. Four hours a week. Second half year. A.
8. Homer's Odyssey. Critical reading of large portions of the text, with reference to the date and authorship. Reading of selections from the Iliad in translation with Leafe's Companion to the Iliad. Three hours a week. First half year. One lecture a week on Greek archaeology. Open to all Greek students, and to others on request.
9. Aristophanes' Clouds and Frogs. Study of comedies through translations. Three hours a week. Second half year. One lecture a week on Greek art and literature. Open to all Greek students and to others on request.

Charles S. Prosser, professor of natural history. B. S., Cornell University, 1883; M. S., 1885; F. G. S. A., 1888; fellow in natural history, Cornell University, 1884-85; instructor in historical geology, Cornell University, 1885-88; assistant paleontologist, United States geological survey, 1888-92.
The instruction in natural history aims to give a general training in the elements of botany, zoology, and geology, and, in addition, opportunity is offered for advanced work in botany and geology. The introduction work is based upon a text-book, which is supplemented by lectures, and following such a course is field and laboratory study.
1. Botany. Gary's Elements, with plants analysis. Four hours a week. Second half year.
2. Vegetable History and the higher cryptograms, as ferns, mosses, and fungi. Four hours a week. Second half year.
3. Zoology. (a) Course in systematic zoology, for general students. (b) Same course with laboratory study, for scientific students. Four hours a week. First half year. S.
4. Geology. Le Conte's Elements. A general course, with recitations and lectures. Three hours a week. First half year. S. 5. Historical and Economic Geology. This course describes the history of organisms with the distribution of the geologic systems, and the occurrence and methods of working geological deposits of commercial value. Lectures, recitations and laboratory study. Three or four hours a week. Second half year.
6. Paleontology. The identification and study of characteristic fossils. In the fall and spring, this course includes field work in geology, which consists of making geological sections, collecting and identifying fossils, and preparing a geological report describing the area studied.

Caroline L. White, instructor in history and English literature. Graduate of Mt. Holyoke Seminary, 1871; instructor in Mt. Holyoke Seminary, 1872-74; instructor in Washburn College, 1879-83; student in Harvard Annex, 1883-84, 1888-89; instructor in Bradford Academy, Mass., 1884-87.
1. History of England until 1688. (a) General outline of events; (b) development of constitution ©) study of important epochs. Four hours a week. First half year. L.
2. History of England and of France in the eighteenth century. Three hours a week. First half year.
3. History of the English language and literature to the fifteenth century.—The Prologue and two of the Canterbury Tales of Chaucer.—Langley's Vision of Piers, the Plowman. Four hours a week. Second half year. L.
4. The beginnings of the English drama.—Miracle and morality plays.—Study of Marlowe and Shakespeare.—Spenser's Faery Queen, book I.—Milton.—Brief studies of writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.—Lewes's Principles of Success in Literature.—Moulton's Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist.—Gummere's Handbook of Poetics. Three hours a week. L.
5. Critical study of English writers of the nineteenth century. Three hours a week.

Arthur D. Kinsman, instructor in mathematics. B. S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1889; principal of high school, Manchester, Mass., 1890; instructor in mathematics and natural science, Muskegon, Mich., 1890-91.
1. College algebra.—Solid geometry.—Trigonometry. Four and five hours a week. A. S. L.
2. Analytic geometry. Four hours a week. First half year. S.
3. Surveying. Four hours a week. Second half year.
4. Differential and integral calculus. Four hours a week.
5. Differential equations.—Definite integrals.—Method of least squares. Three hours a week.

Maud Fulkerson, instructor in French and German. Ph. B., DePauw University, 1890; student in Paris and Berlin, 1890-92.
1. Chardenal's First French Course.—Bercey's La Language Francaise. Three hours a week. First half year. S. L.
2. Chardenal's Second Course.—Modern authors.—Racine's Esther. Three hours a week. Second half year. S. L.
3. Modern French authors.—Hernani.—Light reading from Victor Hugo. Three hours a week. First half year.
4. Classical French.—Corneille, Racine, Moliere. Three hours a week. Second half year.
5. Cook's Otto German Grammar.—Brandt's German Reader.—Modern authors. Five hours a week. This course is required of candidates for the degrees of bachelor of science and bachelor of letters for admission into the freshman class. Either course 5 in German or course 1 and 2 in French is prescribed for candidates for the degree of bachelor of arts.
6. Schrankamp's Erzählungen aus der Deutschen Geschichte.—Schiller's Balladen.—Prose composition. Four hours a week. First half year.
7. Schiller. Prose composition.—Reading at sight. Five hours a week. Second half year.
8. Lessing.—Goethe's Hermann und Dorethea.—Reading at sight. Five hours a week. First half year.
9. Faust, part I.—Reading from modern authors. Three hours a week. Second half year.

Helen Ruth Ingalls, instructor in instrumental music, harmony, and theory. Graduate of New England Conservatory, Boston, 1890.
1. The course in piano occupies five years, during which the works of Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann and Chopin are studied, as well as some of the modern composers. Special attention is given to technique and to the development of a pure legato touch and an expressive style of playing.
2. The course in harmony and theory occupies one year, and consists of musical notation, keys, scales, signatures, and intervals.

Hallie A. Walker, instructor in vocal music. Student in New England Conservatory, Boston, 1889-90; student in New York Vocal Institute, 1891-92; instructor in vocal music, Tazewell Female Seminary, Tazewell, Va., 1890-91.
The courses in voice culture and singing include Panofka's Vocal A B C; Concone, op.9 to 17; Vocal, Italian Studies; Marchesi, op. 5; Panofka, op. 87, bk. 1 and 2; Marchesi, op. 6; Sutgen, studies; Marchesi, op. 3; English, German, French and Italian songs; arias from opera and oratorios; control of breath; song phrasing; music reading; appearance while singing.

Samuel W. Scott, principal of the preparatory school and instructor in Latin. B. A., Yale University, 1886; instructor in classics, Brooks Military Academy, Cleveland, Ohio, 1887; head master and classical instructor, Bishop Scott Academy, Portland, Ore., 1887-91; professor of Latin and Greek, Mount Morris College, Mount Morris, Ill., 1892.

W. A. Harshbarger, instructor in mathematics in the preparatory school. Student in West Virginia University, 1881-82; student in Oberlin College, 1883-84; instructor in Franklin Academy, Franklin, Neb., 1884-90.
The object of the preparatory school is thoroughly to prepare students to enter the freshman class of the college in courses leading to the degree of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and bachelor of letters. All students seeking admission are required to pass an examination or to present a certificate showing that satisfactory work has been done in orthography, arithmetic (including the metric system), English grammar, political geography, and the history of the United States. Instruction is given by the members of the college faculty as well as by the special instructors whose work is confined to the preparatory school. Instruction is given in the subjects named below.

1. English.—Weekly exercises in English composition and elocution, and the study of masterpieces of English literature.
2. Mathematics.—Algebra, including the solution of quadratic equations and the theory of exponents.—Plane geometry.
3. Latin.—Collar and Daniell's Beginners' Latin Book.—Four books of Caesar's Gallic War.—Five orations of Cicero.—Exercises in Latin composition.
4. History.—The history of Greece to the time of the Macedonian supremacy, the history of Rome to the death of Augustus, and the geography of Greece and Rome.
For graduation, every student is required to complete courses 1 to 4, named above, and a sufficent number of the following to amount to four courses. Any two of the subjects marked half course may be taken together as the equivalent of one full course:
5. Latin.—The first six books of Vergil's Eneid and the Bucolics, with the principles of prosody which are involved in Vergil's verse.
6. Greek.—Harper and Water's Inductive Greek Method, and the first book of Xenophon's Anabasis.
7. Greek.—Books II and III of the Anabasis, and two books of Homer's Iliad.—Exercises in Greek composition.
8. Physiology. Half course.
9. Physical geography. Half course.
10. Civil government. Half course.
11. Physics. Half course.
12. Botany.—Half course. Gray's Elements, with plant analysis.
13. German.—Cook's Otto's Grammar.—Brandt's German Reader.—Modern authors.
14. German.—Schrakamp's Erzahlungen aus der Deutschen Geschichte.—Schiller's Balladen. Prose composition. Reading at sight.
15. French.—Chardenal's First French Course.—Chardenal's Second French Course. Bercy's La Langue Francasie.—Modern authors.—Racine's Esther.
16. Mathematics.—Higher algebra.—Solid geometry.—Plane trigonometry.

The requirements for graduation from the preparatory school are the same as for admission into the freshman class of the college. The time ordinarily required to complete these studies is three years.

transcribed by Rita Troxel, State Library of Kansas



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